(М/б) 1. A patient with complaints of 3-day-long fever, general weakness, loss of appetite came to visit the infectionist. The doctor suspected enteric fever. Which method of laboratory diagnosis is the best to confirm the diagnosis?
A. Detachment of pure culture
B. Detachment of urine culture
C. Detachment of blood culture
D. Detachment of myeloculture
E. Detachment of feces culture
2. A 63-year-old woman developed symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Their increase of which blood values indicators could be the most significant in proving the diagnosis?
A. Acid phosphatase
D. General cholesterol
E. Additive glycosaminoglycans
(Н.Ф/П.Ф/Б.Х) 3. There is an inhibited coagulation in the patients with bile ducts obstruction, bleedi ng due to the low level of absorbtion of a vitamin. What vitamin is in deficiency?
(Н.Ф/Б.Х) 4. The alveolar ventilation of the patient is 5 L/min, the breath frequency is 10 per/mm] and the tidal volume is 700 ml. What is the patient’s dead space ventilation?
A. 4,3 L/min
B. 1,0 L/min
C. 2,0 L/min
D. 0,7 L/min
(Н.Ф/П.Ф) 5. A 16 year-old patient got numerous traumas in automobile accident. Now the patient is haning a shock. AP – 80/60 mm Hg. daily urine volume 60-80 ml. What pathogenic mechanism leads to kidneys function violation?
A. Decreased hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries
B. Trauma of the urinary bladder
C. Increased vasopressin blood concentrati on
D. Increased pressure in Bowman’s capsule
E. Increased osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries
6. The alternate usage of dichlotiazide, etacrin acid and lasex did not cause marked diuretic effect in the patient with marked peripheral edema. The aldosterone level in the blood is increased. Indicate which medicine should be prescribed:
C. Clopamid D.Urea
(гіс.) 7. The reason of occurrence of some diseases of an oral cavity is connected with structural peculiarities of its mucous membrane. What morphological attributes characterize these features?
A. No muscularis mucosa, stratified squamous epithelium
B. Transitional epithelium, no submucosa
C. Well developed muscularis, no submucosa
D. Transitional epithelium, no muscularis mucosa
E. Simple columnar ciliated epithelium
(А) 8. A 45-year-old man fell on the right knee and felt the acute pain in the joint. On examination: severe edema on the anterior surface of the knee joint. Crunching sounds are heard while moving the joint. Which bone is destroyed?
A. Left epicondyle of the thigh
C. Right epicondyle of the thigh
D. Head of the thigh bone
E. Neck of the thigh bone
(А) 9. During the fetal period of the development in the vascular system of the fetus a large arterial (Botallo’s) duct is functioning which converts into lig.artemosum after birth. What anatomi cal formations does this duct connect?
A. Aorta and inferior vena cava
B. Right and left auricle
C. Pulmonary trunk and aorta
D. Aorta and superior vena cava
E. Pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava
(А) 10. A patient has a malignisation of thoracic part of esophagus. What lymphatic nodes are regional for this organ?
A. Nodi lymphatici mediastinales posteriores
B. Nodi lymphatici prevertebralis
C. Anulus lymphaticus cardiac
D. Nodi lymphatici paratrachealis
E. Nodi lymphatici pericardiales laterales
(Н.Ф/П.Ф) 11. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20% due to prolonged starvati on of the person. The most evident cause of filtration changes under this conditions is:
A. Increase of penetration of the renal filter
B. Decrease of oncotic pressure of blood plasma
C. Increase of filtration coefficient
D. Increase of renal plasma stream
E. Increase of systemic blood pressure
(Н.Ф) 12. A 60-year-old patient was diagnosed with hypothalamic lateral nuclei stroke. What changes in patient’s behavior may be expected?
B. Aggressive behaviour
C. The rejection of food
E. Unsatisfied hunger
(Н.Ф) 13. The energy inputs of a healthy man have been measured. In what position was the patient if his energy inputs were less than the main exchange?
C. Easy work
D. Nervous exertion
(Н.Ф/П.Ф.) 14. A 2-year-old child has got intestinal dysbacteriosis, which results in hemorrhagic syndrome. What is the most likely cause of hemorrhage of the child?
A. Vitamin K insufficiency
B. PP hypovitaminosis
C. Fibrinogen deficiency
E. Activation of tissue thromboplastin
(М/б) 15. A patient who came to the doctor because of his infertility was administered to make tests for toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea. Which reaction should be performed to reveal latent toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea of the patient?
A. RDHA – Reverse direct hemagglutinati- on assay
B. (R)CFT- Reiter’s complement fixation test
C. IFA – Immunofluorescence assay
D. RIHA – Reverse indirect hemagglutinati- on assay
E. Immunoblot analysis
(Б/Х) 16. Synthesis of phospholipids is disordered under the liver fat infiltration. Indicate which of the following substances can enhance the process of methylation during phospholipids synthesis?
E. Ascorbic acid
(П.Ф./Ф.) 17. A patient had been taking glucocorticoi- ds for a long time. When the preparation was withdrawn he developed the symptoms of disease aggravation, decreased blood pressure and weakness. What is the reason of this condition?
C. Hyperproduction of ACTH
D. Appearance of adrenal insufficiency
(Н.Ф) 18. Blood sampling for bulk analysis is recommended to be performed on an empty stomack and in the morning. What changes in blood composition can occur if to perform blood sampling after food intake?
A. Reduced contents of erythrocytes
B. Increased contents of leukocytes
C. Reduced contents of thrombocytes
D. Increased contents of erythrocytes
E. Increased plasma proteins
(П/А) 19. An autopsy has revealed that kidneys are enlarged, surface is large-granular because of multiple cavities with smooth wall, which are filled with clear fluid. What kidney disease did the patient have?
C. Necrotic nephrosis
E. Polycystic kidney
(Б.Х,) 20. Galactosemia has been revealed in a child. Concentration of glucose in the blood has not considerably changed. What enzyme deficiency caused this illness?
E. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase
(М/Б. П/Ф) 21. A 27- year-old woman has used penicillin containing eye drops. In a few minutes itching, skin burning, lips and eyelids edema, whistling cough, decreasing BP appeared. What antibodies can lead to this allergic reaction?
A. IgM and IgG
B. IgM and IgD
C. IgA and IgM
D. IgG and IgD
E. IgE and IgG
(П/А) 22. Autopsy of the 58-year-old man hads revealed that mitral valve is deformed, thickened, does not totally close. Microscopically: centers of collagen fibers are eosinophilic, have positive fibrin reaction. The most probable diagnosis is:
B. Fibrinoid swelling
D. Mucoid swelling
E. Fibrinoid inflammation
(Ф) 23. A 37-year-old man was admitted to the surgical department with the symptoms of acute pancreatitis: vomiti ng, diarrhea, bradycardia, hypotention, weakness, dehydration of the organism. What medicine should be used first of all?
Б/Х, П/Ф) 24. The gluconeogenesis is activated in the liver after intensive physical trainings .What substance is utilized in gluconeogenesis first of all in this case:
(Ф) 25. A doctor administered Allopurinol to a 26-year-old young man with the symptoms of gout. What pharmacological action of Allopurinol ensures therapeutical effect?
A. By increasing uric acid excretion
B. By inhibiting leucocyte migration into the joint
C. By inhibiting uric acid synthesis
D. By general analgetic effect
E. By general anti-inflammatory effect
(Б) 26. A woman who was sick with rubella during the pregnancy gave birth to a deaf child with hare lip and cleft palate. This congenital defect is an example of:
B. Patau’s syndrome
D. Edward’s syndrome
E. Down’s syndrome
(Б/Х) 27. Hydroxylation of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics requires a donor of protons. Which of the following vitamins can play this role?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin P
C. Vitamin B
D. Vitamin C
E. Vitamin E
(Б/Х) 28. A denaturation of proteins can be found in some substances. Specify the substance that is used for the incomplete denaturation of hemoglobin:
B. Faux lupinum
B. Nitric acid
C. Sulfuric acid
E. Sodium hydroxide
(М/Б) 29. A 60-year-old patient was hospitali sed to the surgical department because of infection caused by blue pus bacillus (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) which is sensative to penicillin antibiotics. Indicate which of the given penicillins has marked activity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
D. Carbenicillin disodium
(Б) 30. A woman who was infected with toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy has a child with multiple congenital defects. This is a result of:
D. Biological mutogenesis
E. Chemical mutogenesis
(Б/Х) 31. A patient, who suffers from congeni tal erythropoietic porphyria, has skin photosensitivity. The accumulation of what compound in the skin can cause it?
A. Coproporphyrinogen 3
B. Uroporphyrinogen 2
E. Uroporphyrinogen 1
(Ф) 32. A 42-year-old man who has been injured in a car accident is brought into the emergency room. His blood alcohol level on admission is 250 mg/dL. Hospital records show a prior hospitalization for alcohol related seizures. His wife confirms that he has been drinking heavily for 3 weeks. What treatment should be provided to the patient if he goes into withdrawal?
(Б) 33. Nowadays about 50 minor bases have been found in the t-RNA structure besides the main four nitrogenous bases. Choose the minor nitrogenous base:
(Н.Ф) 34. In the microspecimen of red bone marrow multiple capillares were revealed through the walls of which mature blood cells penetrated. What type of capillares is it?
(А) 35. A mother of a newborn complains of her baby’s constant belching with undigested milk. Which developmental anomaly is it an evidence of?
A. Esophageal atresia
C. Labium leporium
D. Anal atresia
E. Esophageal fistula
(П.А) 36. A 16-year-old boy was performed an appendectomy. He has been hospitalized for right lower quadrant abdominal pain within 18 hours. The surgical specimen is edematous and erythematous. Infiltration by what of the following cells is the most typical for the process occuring here?
(Б/Х Н.Ф/П.Ф) 37. When the pH level of the stomach lumen decreases to less than 3, the antrum of the stomach releases peptide that acts in paracrine fashion to inhibit gastrin release. This peptide is:
C. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
D. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)
(Б/Х Н.Ф) 38. The formation of a secondary mediator is obligatory in membrane-intracellular mechanism of hormone action. Point out the substance that is unable to be a secondary mediator:
(Б/Х Н.Ф) 39. There is only one hormone among the neurohormones which refers to the derivatives of amino acids according to classification. Point it out:
(Н.Ф–Ф–П/Ф) 40. The preventive radioprotector was gi ven to a worker of a nuclear power station. What mechanism from the below menti oned is considered to be the main mechani sm of radioprotection?
A. Increasing of respiration
B. Activation of oxidation reactions
C. Prevention of tissue’s hypoxia
D. Inhibition of free radicals formation
E. Increasing of tissue blood supply
(Н.Ф–П/Ф) 41. A 62-year-old patient was admitted to the neurological department due to cerebral haemorrage. His condition is grave. There is evident progression of deep and frequent breath that turnes into reduction to apnoea and the cycle repeates. What respiration type has developed in the patient?
A. Apneustic respiration
B. Cheyne-Stockes respiration
C. Kussmaul respiration
D. Gasping respiration
E. Biot’s respiration
(Ф) 42. A 58-year-old female has undergone surgery for necrotic bowel. Despite having been treated with antibiotics, on postoperative day 5, she develops symptoms (fever, hypotension, tachycardia, declining urine output, and confusion) consistent with septic shock. What hemodynamic support would be helpful?
A. Fluids and Dobutamine infusion
B. Dobutamine infusion
C. Fluid administration
D. Atropine administration
E. Antibiotic administration
(Б/Х–П/А–П/Ф) 43. Some diseases reveal symptoms of aldosteronism with hypertension and Edema due to sodium retention in the organism. What organ of the internal secretion is affected on aldosteronism?
C. Adrenal glands
(Б–П/Ф) 44. A couple came for medical genetic counseling. The man has hemophilia, the woman is healthy and there were no cases of hemophilia in her family. What is the risk of having a sick child in this family?
A. 100 %
B. 50 %
C. 75 %
(А) 45. A patient has elbow joint trauma with avulsion of medial epicondyle of humerus. What nerve can be damaged in this trauma?
A. Cardiac cutaneous nerve
B. Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
C. Musculocutaneous nerve
(А) 46. A 18-year-old patient came to the outpatient department with the complaints of bleeding trauma in the vestibule of his nose. On examination: the mechanical injure of the mucous layer of the vestibule without continuation into nasal cavity proper. What is the boundary between the vestibule and nasal cavity proper?
A. Nasal septa
C. Nasal roller
E. Nasal limen
(А) 47. A young man felt sharp pain in the back \ during active tightening on the horizontal bar. Objectively: pain while moving upper extremity, limited pronation and adduction functions. Sprain of what muscle can be observed here?
A. M. romboideus major
B. M. trapezius
C. M. levator scapulae
D. M. subscapularis
E. M. latissimus dorsi
(А) 48. A 55-year-old patien was hospitalized in result of the trauma of the medial group of femoral muscles. What kind of movements is the patient unable to do?
A. Suppination of femur
B. Flexion of femur
C. Extension of femur
D. Adduction of femur
E. Abduction of femur
(Б/х) 49. Patient with diabetes mellitus experi enced loss of consciousness and convulsions after an injection of insulin. What might be the result of biochemical blood analysis for concentration of sugar?
A. 5,5 mmol/L
B. 3,3 mmol/L
C. 10,0 mmol/L
D. 1,5 mmol/L
E. 8,0 mmol/L
(А) 50. A 45-year-old man with domestic apper arm injuiry came to the trauma unit. The objective data are: there are no extension, adduction or pronation functions of the arm. What muscle damage caused this condition?
B. Teres minor
C. Teres major
(Н.Ф–Б/Х–П/Ф) 51. Chronic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in a 34-year-old patient 3 years ago. Edema has developed within the last 6 monthes. What caused the edema?
A. Hyperproduction of vasopressin
B. Liver disfunction of protein formation
D. Hyperosmolarity of plasma
(Г–Н/Ф–П/Ф) 52. A 2-year-old child experienced convulsions because of lowering calcium ions concentration in the blood plasma. Function of what structure is decreased?
A. Adrenal cortex
C. Parathyroid glands
D. Pineal gland
(П/Ф) 53. A patient visited a dentist with complaints of redness and edema of his mouth mucous membrane in a month after dental prosthesis. The patient was diagnosed with allergic stomatitis. What type of allergic reaction by Gell and Cumbs underlies this disease?
C. Delayed type hypersensitivity
(М/Б–П/Ф) 54. Blood analysis of a patient showed signs of HIV infection (human immunodeficiency virus). Which cells does HIV-virus primarily affect?
A. Mast cells
B. Cells that contain receptor T4 (T-helpers)
C. Cells that contain receptor IgM (B- lymphocytes)
D. Specialized nervous cells (neurons)
E. Proliferating cells (stem hematoplastic cells)
(П/Ф) 55. The calcium canals of cardiomyocytes have been blocked on an isolated rabbit’s heart. What changes in the heart’s activity can happen as a result?
A. Heart stops in systole
B. Decreased rate and force of heart beat
C. Decreased heart beat rate
D. Decreased force of the contraction
E. Heart stops in diastole
(Б/Х) 56. Substitution of the glutamic acid on valine was revealed while examining initi al molecular structure. For what inherited pathology is this symptom typical?
C. Sickle-cell anemia
D. Minkowsky-Shauffard disease
(А) 57. A 50 year-old patient had hemorrhage ” of the brain and was taken to the hospital. The place of hemorrhage was revealed on the lateral hemispheres surfaces during the medical examination. What artetywas injured ?
A. The posterior cerebral artery
B. The middle cerebral artery
C. The anterior communicating artery
D. The posterior communicating artery
E. The anterior cerebral artery
(Ф) 58. A 25-year-old woman with red and itchy eczematoid dermatitis visits your office. She had a dental procedure one day earlier with administration of a local anesthetic. There were no other findings, although she indicated that she had a history of allergic reactions. Which of the following drugs is most likely involved?
(П/А) 59. Decreased blood supply to the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function. Volume of what elements is increased in this case?
A. Nerve elements
B. Vessels of microcircular stream
C. Parenchymatous elements of the organ
D. Intercellular substance
E. Lymphatic vessels
(Н.Ф–П/Ф) 60. A patient with hypersecretion of the gastric juices was recomended to exclude concentrated bouillons and vegetable decoctions from the diet because of their stimulation of gastric secretion. What is dominating mechanism of stimulation of secreti on in this case?
A. Stimulation of gastrin production by G-cells
B. Stimulation of excretion of secretin in the duodenum
C. Irritation of taste receptors
D. Irritation of mechanoreceptors of the stomach
E. Irritation of mechanoreceptors of the oral cavity
(Н.Ф–П/Ф) 61. During the experiment on the influence of chemical substances in the muscles the reaction of Ca2+-pump is weakened. Which phenomenum will be observed?
A. Prolonged relaxation
B. Activation of the sodium-potassium pump
C. Decreased velocity of the AP distribution
D. Decreased AP
E. Prolonged duration of the AP
(М/Б) 62. Scraps of the mycelium of a fungus, spores, air bubbles and fat drops were discovered on microscopy of the patient’s hair excluded from the infected areas. What fungus disease is characterised by this mi croscopic picture?
(А) 63. A patient suffering from trombophlebitis of deep veins suddenly died. The autopsy has shown freely lying red friable masses with dim crimped surface in the trunk and bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. What pathologic process was revealed by the morbid anatomist?
A. Fat embolism
B. Tissue embolism
C. Embolism with foreign body
(П/А) 64. A patient died from acute cardiac insufficiency. The histological examination of his heart revealed the necrotized section in myocardium of the left ventricle, which was separated from undamaged tissue by the zone of hyperimic vessels, small hemorrhages and leukocytic infiltration. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Myocardial ischemic dystrophy
B. Myocardial infarction
C. Focal exudate myocarditis
D. Productive myocarditis
E. Diffuse exudate myocarditis
(А) 65. The increased intraocular tension is observed in a patient with glaucoma. Secretion of aqueous humor by the ciliar body is normal. Injury of what structure of the eyeball caused the disorder of flow-out from the anterior chamber?
B. Venous sinus
C. Back epithelium of cornea
D. Ciliar body
E. Ciliary muscle
(Б) 66. A 10-year-old child complains of weakness, nausea, irritability. Helminthes of white color and 5-10 mm long have been found on the underwear. On microscopy of the scrape from the perianal folds achromicova of the unsymmetrical form have been revealed. Which helminth is in the organism of the child?
B. Enterobins vermicularis
D. Ancylostoma duodenalis
E. Ascaris lumbricoides
(Ф) 67. A 55-year-old patient with continuing ventricular arrhythmias was admitted to the hospital. The patient is taking timolol drops for glaucoma, daily insulin injections for diabetes mellitus, and an ACE inhibitor for hypertension. You have decided to use phenytoin instead of procainamide. What is the reason?
A. The anticholinergic effect of procainami de would aggravate glaucoma
B. The cholinergic effects of procainamide would aggravate the diabetes
C. The hypertensive effects of procainamide would aggravate the hypertension
D. The local anesthetic effect of procainami de would potentiate diabetes
E. The local anesthetic effect of procainami de would aggravate the hypertension
(М/Б) 68.. A patient with abscess of the cut wound applied to the traumatological department.The wound was washed with 3% hydrogen peroxide to be cleaned from the pus. Foam was not observed. What caused inefficiency of the drug?
A. Shallow wound
B. Pus in the wound
C. Inherited insufficiency erythrocyte’s phosphatdehydrogenase
D. Inherited insufficiency of catalase
E. Low concentration
(Б/Х) 69. In case of enterobiasis acrihine – the structural analogue of vitamin – is admi nistered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in mi croorganisms?
A. FAD-dependent dehydrogenases
C. NAD-dependet dehydrogenases
(П/А) 70. A 40-year-old woman has had a feeling of abdominal discomfort for the past 8 months. On pelvic examination, there is the right adnexal mass. Abdominal CT scan demonstrates a 7 cm cystic mass involving the right ovary with small areas of calcification. The uterus is normal in size. The right fallopian tube and ovary have been removed surgically. Grossly, the mass on sectioning is filled with abundant hair and sebum. Microscopically, the mass has glandular spaces lined by columnar epithelium, squamous epithelium with hair follicles, cartilage, and dense connective tissue. What type of tumour is it?
B. Squamous cell carcinoma of ovary
C. Sarcoma of ovary
D. Metastase of cervical carcinoma
(Б) 71. On autopsy of a still-born infant abnormalities have been revealed: ventri cles are not separated, a single arterial trunk originates from the right part. For what class of vertebrates is such heart construction characteristic?
(М/Б) 72. At the aboratory experiment the eukocyte culture was mixed with staphylococci. Neutrophile leukocytes engulfed and digested bacterial cells. This processes are termed:
A. Facilitated diffusion
(А) 73. A 19 year-old patient was diagnosed with appendicitis and was hospitalized. The surgical operation on ablating appendix vermiformis is to be performed. What artery must be fixed to stop bleeding during the surgical operation?
A. The iliac
B. The colica sinistra
C. The colica dextra
D. The ileocolic artery
E. The colica media
(Н.Ф) 74. A patient with tissue trauma was taken a blood sample for the determination of blood clotting parameters. Specify the right sequence of extrinsic pathway activation.
A. IV – Vila – Xa
B. Ill – Vila – Xa
C. Ill – IV – Xa
D. Ill-VIII: TF-Xa
(П/А–П/Ф) 75. A patient in three weeks after acute myocardial infarction has pain in the heart and joints and pneumonia. What is the main mechanism of development of post- infarction Dressler’s syndrome?
A. Thrombosis vessels
B. Autoimmune inflammation
C. Secondary infection
D. Ischemia of myocardium
E. Resorption of enzymes from necrotized area of myocardium
(П/А) 76. A young man has an unpainfull formati on without marked borders in the soft ti ssues of his thigh. On the tissue bioptate the formation lookes like flesh of fish and consists of immature fibroblast-like cells with multiple mitosis growing through the muscles. What is the most likely diagnosis?
(А) 77. Usually the intravenous injection is done into median cubital vein because it is slightly movable due to fixation by the soft tissues. What does it fix in the cubital fossa?
A. Brachioradial muscle
B. Tendon of the triceps muscle
C. Anconeus muscle
D. Aponeurosis of biceps muscle
E. Brachial muscle
(Б/Х) 78. Marked increase of activity of MB- forms of CPK (creatinephosphokinase) and LDH-1 was revealed by examination of the patient’s blood. What is the most probable pathology?
D. Miocardial infarction
(П/А) 79. A 50-year-old man has felt vague abdominal discomfort within past 4 months. Physical examination revealed no lymphadenopathy , and no abdominal masses or organomegalyat palpation. Bowel sounds are heard. An abdominal CT scan shows a 20 cm retroperitoneal soft tissue mass obscuring the left psoas muscle. A stool specimen tested for occult blood is negative. Which of the following neoplasmsis this man most likely to have?
(А) 80. During the operation on the hip joint of a 5-year-old child her ligament was damaged which caused bleeding. What ligament was damaged?
A. The head of the thigh
C. Perpendicular of the acetabule
(М/Б) 81. From the nasopharynx of a 5-year- old child a microorganism was excreted which is identical to Corynebacterium diphtheriae dose according to morphological and biochemical signs. Microorganism does not produce exotoxin. As a result of what process can this microorganism become toxigenic?
A. Chromosome mutation
B. Phage conversion
C. Growing with antitoxic serum
D. Cultivation in the telluric environment
E. Passing through the organism of the sensative animals
(А) 82. An old woman was hospitalized with acute pain, edema in the right hip joint; the movements in the joint are limited. Which bone or part of it was broken?
A. Condyle of the thigh
B. The body of the thigh bone
C. The neck of the thigh
D. Pubic bone
E. Ischial bone
(Н.Ф) 83. When a patient with traumatic impairment of the brain was examined, it was discovered that he had stopped to distinguish displacement of an object on the skin. What part of the brain was damaged?
A. Occipital zone of the cortex
B. Frontal central gurus
C. Parietal zone of the cortex
D. Frontal zone
E. Posterior central gurus
(Ф) 84. A 50-year-old male farm worker has been brought to the emergency room. He was found confused in the orchard and since then has remained unconscious. His heart rate is 45 and his blood pressure is 80/40 mm Hg. He is sweating and salivating profusely. Which of the following should be prescribed?
(Б/Х) 85. A worker has decreased buffer capacity of blood due to exhausting muscular work The influx of what acid substance in the blood can cause this symptom?
(Б/Х) 86. The high level of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes concentration showed the increase of LDH-1 and LDH-2 in a patient’s blood plasma. Point out the most probable diagnosis?
A. Diabetes mellitus
B. Myocardial infarction
C. Viral hepatitis
D. Acute pancreatitis
E. Skeletal muscle dystrophy
(П/А) 87. The pulmonalis embolism has suddenly developed in a 40 year-old patient with opened fracture of the hip. Choose the possible kind of embolism.
E. Foreign body
(П/А) 88. A patient has undergone an amputation of lower extremity. Some time later painful nodules appeared in a stump. Amputatious neuromas were found out at the microscopic examination. To what pathological processes do those formations relate?
(Н.Ф–Ф) 89. The CNS stimulation produced by methylxanthines, such as caffeine, is most likely due to the antagonism of one of the following receptors:
A. Adenosine receptors
B. Glutamate receptors
C. GABA receptors
D. Glycine receptors
E. Cholinergic muscarinic receptors
(П/А) 90. An intraoperational biopsy of mammal gland has revealed the signs of atypical tissue with disorder of parenchyma’stroma proportion with domination of the last, gland structures of different size and shape, lined with single-layer proliferative epithelium. What is the most probable diagnosis?
B. Infiltrative cancer
E. Noninfiltrative cancer
(Ф) 91. A 35-year-old man under the treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis has acute-onset of right big toe pain, swelling, and low-grade fever. The gouty arthritis was diagnosed and high serum uric acid level was found. Which of the following antituberculosis drugs are known for causing high uric acid levels?
E. Aminosalicylic acid
(П/Ф) 92. A 68-year-old woman can not move ^ her upper and lower right extremities after stroke. Muscle tone of these extremities and reflexes are increased. There are pathological reflexes. What form of the paralysis is it?
(М/Б) 93. The sterile Petri dishes and pipettes are necessary to prepare for microbiological tests in bacteriological laboratory. What way of sterilization should be applied in this case?
A. Steam sterilization in autoclave
D. Dry-heat sterilization
(Ф) 94. A 13-year-old girl with history of asthma complained of cough, dyspnea and wheezing. Her symptoms became so severe that her parents brought her to the emergency room. Physical examination revealed diaphoresis, dyspnea, tachycardia and tachypnea. Her respiratory rate was 42/min, pulse rate was 110 beats per mi nute, and blood pressure was 130/70 mm Hg. Choose from the following list the most appropriate drug to reverse the bronchoconstriction rapidly:
(Н.Ф–П/Ф) 95. X-ray examination discovered lungs emphysema in the patient. What is the reason of short breath development in this case?
A. Decreasing of alveoli receptors sensitivity
B. Excitation of respiratory center
C. Inhibition of respiratory center
D. Decreased lungs elasticity
E. Increased lungs elasticity
(Ф) 96. To anaesthetize the manipulation related to burn surface treatment, a patient was intravenously injected a medication for short-acting narcosis. 1 minute later the patient being under anaesthesia had increased blood pressure, tachycardia, increased tone of sceletal muscles; reflexes remained. After awakening the patient had desorientation and visual hallucinations. What medication was the patient injected?
A. Thiopental sodium
B. Nitrous oxide
D. Diethyl ether
(П/Ф) 97. A patient after hypertension stroke does not have voluntary movements in his right arm and leg with the increased muscle tone in these extremites. What type of disfunction of nervous system is it?
A. Peripheral paralysis
B. Central paralysis
C. Peripheral paresis
D. Central paresis
E. Reflex paresis
(Н.Ф–П/Ф) 98. A damage of the atomic power plant reactor resulted in the run-out of radioelements. People in the superstandard radiation zone were radiated with approxi mately 250-300 r. and were immediately hospitalized. What changes in the blood count would be typical?
(Н.Ф) 99. The penetration of the irritable cell membrane for potassium ions has been increased during an experiment. What changes of membrane electric status can occur?
A. Local response
B. Action potential
E. No changes
(А) 100. A 30-year-old patient was hospitalized due to bleeding of the facial artery . What place on the face has to be pressed to stop bleeding?
A. The mandible’s branch
B. The nose’s back
C. The molar bone
D. The mandible’s edge
E. The mental process
101. Succinate dehydrogenase catalyses the dehydrogenation of succmate. Malonic acid HOOC – CH? -COO His used to interrupt the action of this enzyme. Choose the inhibition type:
A. Limited proteolysis
102. Only one factor can influence the charge of amino acid radicals in the active centre of enzyme. Name this factor:
A. The presence of a competitive inhibitor
B. The surplus of a product
C. pH medium
103. A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small (15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:
C. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E. Golgi complex
104. (Н.Ф) The low specific gravity of the secondary urine (1002) was found out in the sick person. What is the most distant part of nephron where concentration of secondary urine takes place?
A. In the nephron’s glomerulus
B. In proximal tubule of nephron
C. In ascending part of loop of Henle
D. In the collecting duck
E. In distal tubule of nephron
105. A patient with bronchial asthma had been taking tablets which caused insomnia, headache, increased blood pressure. What medecine can cause such complications?
C. Chromohn sodium
106. A 22-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of heavy nasal breathing. During the examination of her nasal cavity the doctors found thickened mucous membrane, a lot of mucus and nodular infiltrates without erosions in the nose.The nasal rhinoscleroma was diagnosed. The biopsy was taken. What typi cal morphological changes may be found?
A. Granulomas with Mikulicz’s cells
B. Granulomas with Langhan’s cells
C. Interstitial inflammation
D. Granulomas with Virchow’s cells ,
E. Granulomas with foreign body cells
107. Part of the DNA chain turned about 180 degrees due to gamma radiation. What type of mutation took place in the DNA chain?
108. Ovarian tumour was diagnozed in a woman. Surgery should be perfomed. What ligament should be extracted by the surgeon to disconnect the ovary and the uterus?
A. Lateral umbilical ligament
B. The ovarial ligament
C. Suspensory ligament of ovary
D. Round ligament of uterus
E. Broad ligament of uterus
109. A highly injured person has gradually died. Please choose the indicator of biologi cal death:
A. Absence of movements
B. Loss of consciousness
C. Autolysis and decay in the cells
D. Absence of palpitation and breathing
E. Disarray of chemical processes
110. Inhibition of alpha-motoneuron of the extensor muscles was noticed after stimulation of a-motoneuron of the flexor muscles during the experiment on the spinal column. What type of inhibition can be caused by this process?
111. Punctata hemorrhage was found out in the patient after application of a tourniquet. With disfunction of what blood cells is it connected?
112. A patient after pathological process has a thickened alveolar membrane. The direct consequence of the process will be the reduction of:
A. Oxygen capacity of blood
B. Alveolar lung ventilation
C. Reserve expiratiory capacity
D. Diffuse lung capacity
E. Minute respiratory capacity
113. A lung of a premature infant is presented on electronic photomicrography of biopsy material. Collapse of the alveolar wall caused by the deficiency of surfactant was revealed. Disfunction of what cells of the alveolar wall caused it?
B. Alveocytes type II
C. Alveocytes type I
D. Secretory cells
E. Alveolar macrophages
114. A microscopic examination of the enlarged neck gland of a 14-year-old girl revealed destruction of the tissue structure of the node, absence of the lymph follicles, sclerotic and necrosis parts. Cell constitution of the node is polymorphous, lymphocites, eosinophiles, atypical cells of the large size with multiple-lobule nuclei (Beresovsky-Shternberg cells) and onenudeus large size cells are observed. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Fungous mycosis
B. Acute lympholeucosis
D. Berkitt’s lymphoma
E. Chronic lympholeucosis
115. The concentration of albumins in human blood sample is lower than normal. This leads to edema of tissues. What blood function is damaged?
A. All answers are correct
B. Maintaining the oncoticblood pressure
C. Maintaining the blood sedimentation system
D. Maintaining the body temperature
E. Maintaining the Ph level
116. A patient complains of frequent and difficult urination. Imperfection of what formation can cause it?
B. Testicle adnexa
C. Sperm bubbles
E. Bulb-uretic glands
117. Necrosis focus was observed in the area of hyperemia and skin edema in a few hours after burn. What mechanism strengthens destructive effects in the inflammation area?
A. Emigration of lymphocytes
B. Primary alteration
C. Secondary alteration
D. Diapedesis of erythrocytes
E. Proliferation of fibroblasts
118. A patient with hypochromic anemia has splitting and loss of hair, increased nail brittling and taste alteration. What is the mechanism of the symptoms development?
A. Deficiency of vitamin A
B. Decreased production of parathyrin
C. Deficiency of vitamin 612
D. Decreased production of thyroid hormones
E. Deficiency of iron-containing enzymes
119. After breathing with poisonous steams there is an increased quantity of slime in respiratory passages of a chemical production worker. What of respiratory tract epithelial cells participate in mucousa moi stening?
A. Intercalated cells
B. Goblet cells
C. Endocrine cells
E. Langergans cells
120. Purulent endometritis developed in a woman after delivery. Treating with anti biotics inhibitors of murein synthesis was ineffective. Wide spectrum bactericidal antibiotic was administered to her. In 6 hours temperature rapidly increased up to 40°C with shiver. Muscle pains have appeared. BP dropped down to 70/40 mmHg. Oligurahas developed. What is the main reason for the development of this condition?
A. Endotoxic shock
C. Anaphylactic shock
D. Toxic effect of preparation
E. Internal bleeding
121. Obturative jaundice developed in a 60-year-old patient because of malignant tumour of the big papillary of the duodenal. Lumen of what anatomical structure is squeezed with tumour?
A. Cystic duct
B. Right hepatic duct
C. Common hepatic duct
D. Left hepatic duct
E. Hepatopancreatic ampulla
122. (М/Б)) A 50-year-old patient with typhoid fever was treated with Levomycetin, the next day his condition became worse, temperature rose to 39,6°C. What caused the complication?
A. Allergic reaction
B. Irresponsiveness of an agent to the levomycetin
D. The effect of endotoxin agent
E. Secondary infection addition
123. (Н.Ф) A 50 year-old patien was injured on the occipital region of the head. The closed skull’s trauma was diagnosed. She was taken to the hospital. The medical examination: deregulation of walking and balance, trembling of arms. What part of brain was injured?
A. The medulla oblongata
B. The inter-brain
C. The cerebellum
D. The mind-brain
E. The spinal cord
124. (Н.Ф) After the trauma, the patient’s right ‘ n.vagus was damaged. Which violation of the cardiac activity is possible in this case?
A. Violation of the automatism of a atrio- ventricular node
B. Violation of the automatism of a Kiss- Fleck node
C. Violation of a conductivity in the right auricle
D. Block of a conductivity in the atrio- ventricular node
125. (Н.Ф) The action of electric current on the exitable cell caused depolarization of its membrane. Movement of what ions through the membrane caused depolarisation?
126. An autopsy revealed large (1-2 cm) , brownish-red, easy crumbling formations covering ulcerative defects on the external surface of the aortic valve. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Diffusive endocarditis
B. Polypus-ulcerative endocarditis
D. Acute warty endocarditis
E. Recurrent warty endocarditis
127. (М/Б)) While enrolling a child to school J Mantu’s test was made to define whether revaccination was needed. The test result is negative. What does this test result mean?
A. Presence of cell immunity to the tuberculosis
B. Absence of cell immunity to the tuberculosis
C. Absence of antitoxic immunity to the tuberculosis
D. Presence of antibodies for tubercle bacillus
E. Absence of antibodies for tubercle bacillus
128. The electronic microphoto of kidney fragment has exposed afferent glomerular arteriole, which has giant cells under its endothelium, containing secretory granules. Name the type of these cells:
129. (М/Б)) The donor who had not donated the blood for a long time was examined with IFA method. Anti-HBs antibodies were revealed. What does positive result of IFA in this case mean?
A. Chronic hepatitis B
B. Acute hepatitis C
C. Chronic hepatitis C
D. Acute hepatitis B
E. Previous hepatitis B
130. (Н.Ф) A 56-year-old patient complaining of thirst and frequent urination was diagnosed with diabete mellitus. Butamin was prescri bed. How does the medicine act?
A. It helps to absorb the glucose by the cells of the organism tissues
B. It stimulates /?-cells of Langergans’ islets
C. It inhibits absorption of glucose in the intestines
D. It relieves transport of glucose through the cells’ membranes
E. It inhibits a-cells of Langergans’ islets
131. (Н.Ф) Examination of a person revealed that minute volume of heart is 3500 mL, systolic volume is 50 mL. What is the frequency of cardiac contraction?
C. 80 bpm
D. 50 bpm
E. 60 bpm
132. (Н.Ф) During the endoscopy the inflammation of a major papilla of the duodenum and the disturbances of bile secretion were found. In which part of duodenum were the problems found?
B. Ascendant part
C. Descendent part
D. Upper horizontal part
E. Lower horizontal part
133. (М/Б)) A patient has been brought to the hospital with the complaints of headache, pain in left hypochondrium. He has been ill for 1,5 weeks. The sudden illness began with the increase of body temperature up to 39,9°C. In 3 hours the temperature decreased and hydropoiesis began. Theattacks repeat rhythmically in 48 hours. The patient had visited one an African country. The doctors have suspected malaria. What method of laboratory diagnostics is necessary to use?
A. Examination of vaginal and urethral discharge
B. Immunological tests
C. Urine examination
D. Stool examination
E. Blood examination
134. Methotrexate (structural analogue of the folic acid which is competitive inhibitor of the dihydrofolatreductase) is prescribed for treatment of the malignant tumour. On which level does methotrexate hinder synthesis of the nucleic acids?
D. Mononucleotide synthesis
135. Where should the cathetor for evacuation of the lymph from the thoracic lymph duct beinserted?
A. To the inferior vena cava
B. To the right venous corner
C. To the superior vena cava
D. To the left venous corner
E. To the left inguinal vein
136. The patient with pneumonia was treated with antibiotics for a long period. After treatment patient complains of frequent and watery stool, abdomenal pain. What is the reason of intestine function disorder?
A. Hereditary enzyme defect
B. Autoimmune reaction development
C. Antibiotics toxic influence on the GIT
D. Bacteria toxins influence
E. Intestinal disbacteriosis development
137. An isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmi cally irritated with electric impulses. Every next impulse is in a period of relaxation from the previus contraction. What contraction of the muscle occurs?
A. Continuous (smooth) tetanus
D. Waved tetanus
138. The study of the genealogy of a family with hypertrichosis (helix excessive pi- losis) has demonstrated that this symptom is manifested in all generations only in men and is inherited by son from his father. What
is the type of hypertrichosis inheritance?
A. Y-linked chromosome
B. X-linked dominant chromosome
C. X-linked recessive chromosome
139. (М/Б))Live vaccine is injected into the human body. Increasing activity of what cells of connective tissue can be expected?
A. Pigmentocytes and pericytes
B. Plasmocytes and lymphocytes
C. Adipocytes and adventitious cells
D. Macrophages and fibroblasts
E. Fibroblasts and labrocytes
140. Analeptical remedy of reflective type from the H-cholinomimetics group was gi ven to the patient for restoration of breathing after poisoning with carbon monoxide. What medicine was prescribed to the pati ent?
A. Lobeline hydrochloride
B. Adrenalin hydrochloride
C. Atropine sulphate
141. Moving of the daughter chromatids to the poles of the cell is observed in the mi totically dividing cell. On what stage of the mitotic cycle is this cell?
142. Periodic renal colics attacks are observed in a woman with primery hyperparathyroidizm. Ultrasonic examination revealed small stones in the kidneys. What is the most plausible reason of the stones’s formation?
143. A 45-year-old woman suffers from allergic seasonal coryza caused by the ambrosia blossoming. What adipose cells group stabilizer medicine can be used for prevention of this disease?
144. (Н.Ф) A student is thoroughly summarising a lecture. When his groupmates begin talking the quality of the summarising worsens greatly. What type of inhibition in the cerebral cortex is the cause of it?
145. A 57-year-old patient was admitted to the gastroenterological department with suspicion of Zollinger-Ellison syndrom because of rapid increase of gastrin level in the blood serum. What the most probable disorder of the secretory function of the stomach here?
A. Hyperacidity hypersecretion
B. Hyperacidity hyposecretion
C. Hypoacidity hypersecretion
E. Hypoacidity hyposecretion
146. The conjugated protein necessarily contains special component as a non- protein part. Choose the substance that can’t carry out this function:
A. Thiamine pyrophosphate
147. A 52 year-old patient with bronchial asthma was treated with glucocorticoids. Fever reaction appeared as a result of postinjective abscess. The patient had sub febrile temperature, which didn’t correspond to latitude and severity of inflammatory process. Why did patient have low fever reaction?
A. Violation of heat-producing mechanisms
B. Inhibited endogen pyrogens production
C. Violation of heat loss through lungs
D. Inflammatory barrier formation in injection place
E. Thermoregulation center inhibition
148. (Н.Ф) A person has steady HR not exceeding 40 bpm. What is the pacemaker of the heart rhythm in this person?
A. Branches of His’ bundle
D. Sinoatrial node
E. Atrioventricular node
149. (Н.Ф) A 19-year-old female suffers from tachycardia in rest condition, weight loss, excessive sweating, exophtalmos and irritability. What hormone would you expect to find elevated in her serum?
150. (Н.Ф) A histological spacemen presents parenchymal organ, which has cortex and medulla. Cortex consists of epitheliocytes bars with blood capillaries between them; the bars form three zones. Medulla consists of chromaffinocytes and venous sinusoids. Which organ has these morphological features?
B. Adrenal gland
E. Lymph node
151. Patient 54 year-old, 5th day after surgical operation. Blood count: Erythrocytes 3, 6* 1012/1, Hemoglobin 95 g/1, Erythrocyte’s hemoglobin content (color index) 0,78; Leukocytes 16 * 109/1, Platelets 450* 109/1 Blood picture: anizocytosis, poiki- locytosis, reticulocytes- 3,8%. What anemia does this patient have?
A. Acquired hemolytic anemia
B. Chronic posthemorragic anemia
C. Hypoplastic anemia
D. Acute posthemorragic anemia
E. Anemia from iron deficiency
152. Inflamation is characterised by increasing penetration of vessels of mi- crocirculation stream, increasing of their fluid dynamic blood pressure. Increasing of the osmotic concentration and dispersity of protein structures can be found in the intercellular fluid. What kind of edema are to be observed in this case?
153. A woman suffering from dysfunctional metrorrhagia was made a diagnostic abortion. Histologically in the scrape there were a lot of small stamped glandulars covered with multirowed epithelium. The lumens of some glandulars were cystically extended. Choose the variant of general pathologic process in the endometrium.
A. Metaplasia of endometrium
B. Atrophy of endometrium
C. Neoplasm of endometrium
D. Glandular-cystic hyperplasia of endometrium
E. Hypertrophic growth
154. In the ovary specimen colored with hematoxylin-eosin, follicle is determined where cubic-shaped follicle epithelium cells are placed in 1-2 layers, and scarlet covering is seen around ovocyte. Name this follicle:
155. A journalist’s body temperature has sharply increased in the morning three weeks after his mission in India, it was accompanied with shivering and bad headache. A few hours later the temperature decreased. The attacks began to repeat in a day. He was diagnosed with tropical malaria. What stage of development of Plasmodium is infective for anopheles-female?
156. (М/Б)) Red colonies spread in the large quantity in the Endo culture medium were revealed on bacteriological stool examination of a 4-month-old baby with the symptoms of acute bowel infection. What microorganism can it be?
157. A 6-year-old child fell on the cutting object and traumatized soft tissues between tibia and fibula. What kind of bone connection was injured?
158. A 46 year-old patient has complained of headache, fatigue, thirst, pains in the spine and joints for the last 2 years. Clinically observed disproportional enlargement of hands, feet, nose, superciliary arches. He notes that he needed to buy bigger shoes three times. What is the main reason of such disproportional enlargement of different parts of the body?
A. Increased sensitivity of the tissues to insulin
B. Cartilaginous tissue proliferation under growth hormone influence
C. Joints chronic inflammation development
D. Increased sensitivity of the tissues to growth hormone
E. Joints dystrophy development
159. A patient’s blood was analyzed and the decreased erythrocyte’s sedimentation rate (ESR) was discovered. What disease from the listed below is accompanied with decreased ESR?
C. Myocardial infarction
D. Vitamin B deficiency
160. (Н.Ф) Electrocardiogram of a 45-year-old man showed absence of P-wave in all the leads. What part of the conducting system is blocked?
A. Sinu-atrial node
B. Purkinje’s fibres
C. Common branch of the bundle of His
D. Atrioventricular node
E. Branches of the bundle of His
161. (Н.Ф) The process of heart transplantation determined the viability of myocardial cells. The determination of what myocardium parameter is the most important?
A. Concentration of calcium-ions in myofi- brils
B. Rest potential of cardiomyocytes
C. Concentration of Ca-ions in heart vessels
D. Concentration of oxygen in heart vessels
E. Heart temperature
162. (М/Б)) A 46 year-old man complains of difficult nose breathing. Mikulich cells, storage of epithelioid cells, plasmocytes, lymphocytes, hyaline balls are discovered in the biopsy material of the nose thickeni ng. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Rhinovirus infection
C. Meningococcal nasopharyngitis
D. Allergic rhinitis
E. Virus rhinitis
163. (М/Б)) During the breakout of acute respi ratory infection in order to diagnose influenza the express-diagnosis, based on revealing of specific viral antigen in the examined material (nasopharyngial lavage), is carried out. Which reaction is used for this?
A. Complement binding
164. A patient with the symptoms of acute alcoholic poisoning was brought to the hospital. What carbohydrates metabolism changes are typical for this condition?
A. The gluconeogenesis velocity in liver is decreased
B. The anaerobic glucose metabolism predominates in muscles
C. The anaerobic breakage of glucose is increased in muscles
D. The breakage of glycogen is increased in liver
E. The gluconeogenesis is increased in liver
165. A patient with injured muscles of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological department. Due to what cells is reparative regeneration of the muscle fibers and restoration of the muscle function possible?
E. Myoepithelial cells
166. For a long time a 49-year-old woman had suffered from glomerulonephritis which caused death. The autopsy revealed that the size of her kidneys was 7x3x2,5 sm, weight 65,0 g, they were dense and small-grained. Microscopically: fibrinogenous inflammation of serous and mucous capsules, dystrophic changes of parenchymatous organs, brain edema. What complication can cause such changes of serous capsules and inner organs?
167. A man died 8 days after the beginning of the disease. He was diagnosed with dysentery. At the autopsy it was found out a thickened wall of the sigma and rectum, fibrinous membrane on the surface of mucous membrane. Histologically: there is a deep necrosis of mucous membrane with infiltration of necrotic masses with fibrin. What kind of colitis does correspond to the changes?
168. The patient with diabetes mellitus has been delivered in hospital in the state of unconsciousness. Arterial pressure is low. The patient has acidosis. Point substances, which accumulation in the blood results in these manifestations:
A. Amino acids
B. Ketone bodies
D. Cholesterol esters
E. High fatty acids
169. An individual is characterized by rounded face, broad forehead, a mongolian type of eyelid fold, flattened nasal bridge, permanently open mouth, projecting lower lip, protruding tongue, short neck, flat hands, and stubby fingers. What diagnosis can be put to the patient?
B. Turner’s syndrome
C. Klinefelter’s syndrome
D. Down’s syndrome
170. An autopsy revealed: soft arachnoid membrane of the upper parts of cerebral hemisphere is plethoric, of yellowish-green color, soaked with purulent and fibrose exudate, it lookes like a cap. What disease is characterised by these symtoms?
A. Influenza meningitis
B. Meningococcal meningitis
C. Tuberculous meningitis
D. Meningitis at typhus
E. Meningitis at anthrax
171. On autopsy a 35-year-old man the focus of carnification 5 cm in diametre enclosed in a thin capsule was revealed in the second segment of the right lung . The focus consists of a tough dry friable tissue with a dim surface. For what disease are these morphological changes typical?
A. Postinflammatory pneumosclerosis
C. Tumorous form of silicosis
E. Lung cancer
172. A patient with encephalopathy was admitted to neurological department. Correlation of increasing encephalopathy and substances absorbed by the bloodstream from the intestines was revealed. What substances created in the intestines can cause endotoxemia?
173. (Н.Ф) If strong oxidizers get into the bloodstream, a methemoglobin is formed. It is a compound, where iron (II) becomes iron (III). What has to be done to save the patient?
A. Interchangeable hemotransfusion has to be done
B. He has to be calmed down and put to bed
C. Patient has to be exposed to the fresh air
D. Respiratory centers have to be stimulated
E. He has to be given pure oxygen
174. There is the change of teeth at the 6-8- year-old children: deciduous are replaced by permanent. What embrionic tissues are the sources of formation of permanent teeth tissues?
A. Entodermal epithelium of a tooth plate and mesenhime
B. Entodermal epithelium and mesoderm
C. Ectodermal epithelium of a tooth plate and mesenhime
D. Mesodermal epithelium and mesenhime
E. I, II brachial arches
175. During histological examination of the stomach it was found out that glands contained very small amount of pariental cells or they were totally absent. Mucose membrane of what part of the stomach was studied?
A. Body of stomach
C. Pyloric part
E. Fundus of stomach
176. A patient suffering from thyrotoxicosis symptoms of vegetoasthenic syndrome was revealed. What of the following would show the histological appearance of a thyroid gland being stimulated by thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH)?
A. An abundance of colloid in the lumen of the follicle
B. Decreased numbers of parafollicular capillaries
C. Increased numbers of parafollicular cells
D. Decreased numbers of follicular cells
E. Columnar-shaped follicular cells
177. (М/Б)) A consumptive patient has an open pulmonary form of disease. Choose what sputum staining should be selected for fi nding out the tubercle (Koch’s) bacillus?
A. Method of Burry-Gins
B. Method of Neisser
C. Method of Romanowsky-Giemsa
D. Method of Ziel-Neelsen
E. Method of Gram
178. (Н.Ф) The patient has come to the hospital from the smelting workshop in the conditi on of hyperthermia. What is the direct cause of loss of consciousness at the heat stroke?
A. Arterial pressure drop
B. Dilatation of peripheral vessels
C. Increased water loss through sweating
D. Decreased brain blood supply
E. Decrease of heart output
179. A 10-year-old child complains of weakness, nausea, irritability. Helminthes of while color and 5-10 mm long were found on the underwear. On microscopy of the scrape from the perianal folds achromic ovums of imsymmetrical form were revealed. Indi cate what helminth is parasiting on the child?
A. Enterobins vermicularis
B. Ascaris lumbricoides
C. Ancylostoma duodenalis
180. A businessman came to India from South America. On examination the physi cian found that the patient was suffering from sleeping-sickness. What was the way of invasion?
A. After contact with a sick dogs
B. As a result of bug’s bites
C. As a result of mosquito’s bites
D. With contaminated fruits and vegetables
E. Through dirty hands
181. A patient has been taking a mixture prescribed by neuropathologist for neurasthenia for two weeks. The patient feels better but has developed coryza, conjunctivitis, rash, inertia, decrease of memory. She is diagnosed with bromizm. What should be prescribed to decrease the symptoms?
A. Natrium chloride
E. Glucose solution 5%
182. A 32-year-old patient has been diagnosed with bartholinitis (inflammation of Bartholin’s glands ). In what part of the female urogenital system are the Bartholin’s glands located?
A. The labia minor
B. The uterus
C. The clitoris
D. The vagina
E. The labia major
183. The B cells of endocrine portion of pancreas are selectively damaged by alloxan poisoning. How will it be reflected in blood plasma?
A. The content of fibrinogen decrease
B. The content of albumins decreases
C. The content of sugar increases
D. The content of globulins decreases
E. The level of sugar decreases
184. Pyruvate concentration in the patient’s urine has increased 10 times from normal amount. What vitamin deficiency can be the reason of this change:
A. Vitamin Be
B. Vitamin B1
C. Vitamin C
D. Vitamin E
E. Vitamin A
185. Oval and round organelles with double wall are seen at the electron micrograph. The outer membrane is smooth, the inner membrane folded into cristae contain enzyme ATPase synthetase. These are:
C. Golgi complex
186. Slime, blood and protozoa 30-200 mi crons of length have been revealed in a man’s feces. The body is covered with cilias and has correct oval form with a little bit narrowed forward and wide round shaped back end. On the forward end a mouth is visible. In cytoplasm there are two nucleuses and two short vacuoles. For whom are the described attributes typical?
A. Dysenteric amoeba
B. Intestinal amoeba
187. A 59-year-old man has symptoms of parenchymatous jaundice and portal hypertension. Histological examination of the puncture of the liver bioptate has revealed an affected beam-lobule structure, part of hepatocytes has signs of fat dystrophy, port-portal connective tissue septa with formation of pseudo-lobules, with periportal lympho-macrophage infiltrations. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A. Liver cirrhosis
B. Viral hepatitis
C. Alcohol hepatitis
D. Toxic dystrophy
E. Chronic hepatosis
188. (Н.Ф) In the blood of a 26-year-old man 18% of erythrocytes of the spherical, ball- shaped, flat and thorn-like shape have been revealed. Other eritrocytes were in the form of the concavo-concave disks. How is this phenomenon called?
A. Physiological anisocytosis
C. Physiological poikilocytosis
D. Pathological poikilocytosis
E. Pathological anisocytosis
189. (М/Б)) A sick man with high temperature and a lot of tiny wounds on the body has been admitted to the hospital. Lice have been found in the folds of his clothing. What disease can be suspected in the patient?
D. Epidemic typhus
190. (М/Б)) During surgical operation a blood transfusion was made. The blood must be checked to find antigens of some disease. What disease is expected to be found?
B. Virus of hepatitis B
C. Virus of hepatitis E
E. Virus of hepatitis A
191. M-r S presents all signs of the hepatic coma: loss of consciousness, absence of reflexes, cramps, convulsion, disorder of heart activity, recurrent (periodical) respiration. What are cerebrotoxical substances which accumulate in blood under hepar insufficiency?
D. Necrosogenic substances
E. Ketonic body
192. A patient with clinical signs of immunodeficiency has unchanged number and functional activity of T and B lymphocytes. Dysfunction’s defect of antigen-presentation to the immunocompetent cells was found during investigation on the molecule level. Defect of what cells is the most probable here?
A. Macrophages, monocytes
C. Fibroblasts, T-lymphocytes, B- lymphocytes
E. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes
193. (Н.Ф) A man after 1,5 litre blood loss has suddenly reduced diuresis. The increased secretion of what hormone caused such diuresis alteration?
194. A patient died 3 days after the operation because of perforated colon with manifestations of diffuse purulent peritonitis. The autopsy revealed: colon mucos membrane was thickened and covered with a fibrin film, isolated ulcers penetrated at different depth. The histology result: mucous membrane necrosis, leukocytes infiltration with hemorrhages focuses. What disease complication caused the patient’s death?
A. Nonspecific ulcerative colitis
C. Crohn’s disease
195. During complicated labour the symphysis pubis ruptured. What organ “tan be damaged mostly?
B. Urinary blader
E. Uterine tubes
196. A healthy woman has three sons affected by color blindness who were born after her two marriages. Children both of her husbands are healthy. What is the most possible pattern of inheritance of this disease?
A. X-linked dominant
B. Autosomal dominant
C. Autosomal recessive
D. X-linked recessive
197. Different functional groups can be presented in the structure of L-amino aci d’s radicals. Identify the group that is able to form ester bond:
198. (М/Б)) A person was selling “homemade pork “sausages on the market. State sani tary inspector suspected falcification of the sausages. What serological immune reaction can identifiy food substance?
A. Complement- fixation test
B. Indirect hemagglutination test
C. Precipitation test
D. Immunofluorescence test
E. Agglutination test
199. (Н.Ф) Intrapleural pressure is being measured in a person. In what phase does a person hold his breath if the pressure is – 25 cm?
B. Forced expiration
C. Quiet expiration
D. Quiet inspiration
E. Forced inspiration
200. (М/Б)) A patient with suspicion on epidemic typhus was admitted to the hospital. Some arachnids and insects have been found in his flat. Which of them may be a carrier of the pathogen of epidemic typhus?