Microbiology

Posted: May 6, 2012 in MCQ

Microbiology

 

1-Gram positive stain

Gram Positives Stain Purple (violet-blue) because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer

 

2-UTI-causing microorganisms

KEEPS:

Klebsiella

Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae

E. coli

Pseudomonas aeroginosa/ Proteus mirabilis

Staphylococcus saprophyticcus/ Serratia marcescens

 

3-pGram+: bacterial cell wall

• Gram+ has: +hick pepidoglycan layer. +eichoic acid in wall.

 

4-Klebsiella details

You tell the patient: “Get UPS you fat alcoholic”:

UTI

Pneumonia

Sepsis

Fat capsule

Get up=nonmotile since no flagella.

Alcoholic=commonly seen in alcoholic and nosocomial patients.

 

5-Listeria: motility

Istanbulsounds like Listambul = list + tumble.

Listeria has tumbling motility.

 

6-Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation

“Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke”:

Sore throat: 1 week ago

Face bloat: facial edema

Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine

• Alternatively, short version: “Throat, bloat and coke”.

 

7-Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis

Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.

MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.

• Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it’s the classic test to distinguish the Neisseria types.

 

8-Vibrio: motility

“Vibrio Vibrates”:

Vibrio is a genus of actively motile bacteria.

 

9-Gram staining: mechanism

“Murein gets the red out” [Allusion to an old eye-wash slogan]:

Peptidoglycan (aka murein) remains purple during Gram staining. The Gram negatives, devoid of murein, are red. Thus, murein prevents redness and are purple (positive).

 

10-Staphylococci: novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative staphylococci

Staph epidermidis stays away from the novobiocin disc like an epidemic.

• Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.

Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, “‘sap?'” [short for “whassup?”, ie “what’s up”].

• Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.

 

11-Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability

Gamma: Garbage (no hemolytic activity).

Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete).

Beta: Best (complete lysis).

 

12-Common cold: viral causes

“Common cold (acute infectious rhinitis, coryza) is

PRIMArily caused by”:

Paramyxoviruses

Rhinoviruses

Influenza viruses

Myxoviruses

Adenoviruses

 

13-RNA viruses: negative stranded

“Orthodox Rhabbi’s Party Around Fine Bunnies”:

Orthomyxo

Rhabdo

Paramyxo

Arena

Filo

Bunya

 

14-RNA viruses: positive stranded

“Pico Called Flavio To Return Renzo’sCorona”:

Picorna Calici Flavi Toga Retro Reo Corona

 

15-Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibodySPAM:

Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to M protein.

 

16-Trypanosoma brucei: disease caused

“I went on a TRYP toAFRICA”:

TRYPanosoma brucei causes AFRICAn sleeping sickness.

 

17-DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumbDNA:

Double-stranded Nuclear replication ‘Anhedral symmetry

• Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).

 

18-Proteus: disease caused

Firstly, “PROTeus hates PROTons”:

So what does it do to fight the protons? It has a urease that raises the pH. Urea is in urine, so Proteus causes UTIs.

 

19-E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors DUNG:

Diarrhea

UTI

Neonatal meningitis

Gram negative sepsis

• Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.

 

20-Kidney transplant virus

“Borrowed Kidney”:

BK virus is associated with kidney transplants.

 

21-Clostridium difficile: disease caused

“Difficult to be in a Closet with someone having explosive foul smelling diarrhea, because it would smell and there would be no air in there. Clostridium Difficile causes explosive foul smelling diarrhea and is an anaeorbe (no air).

 

22-Urease positive organisms PUNCH:

Proteus (leads to alkaline urine)

Ureaplasma (renal calculi)

Nocardia

Cryptoccocus (the fungus)

Helicobacter pylori

 

23-Pneumonia: acute pneumonia infiltrates from different causes

“Pyrogenic=PMN,

Miscellaneous=Mononuclear”:

Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria: PMN infiltrate.

Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes: Mononuclear infiltrate.

 

24-Pseudomonas details

Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial.

Oxygen tank: oxidase positive.

IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a nonlactose fermenter.

Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly caused pneumonia.

IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis.

The foley: UTI.

Burn on his foot: can infect burns.

 

 

 

25-Entameoba histolytica: disease caused, action

EntAmoeba causes Amoebic dysEntery.

Action: histo (cell) lytic (burst), so it bursts cells.

 

26-Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowingABC:

Actinomyces

Bacteroides

Clostridium

 

27-Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed”Quell-lung”:

Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test].

Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed].

• You get pneumonia in your lung.

 

28-Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion

“ATE eggs”:

Ascaris Lumbricoides

Trichuris trichuira

Enterobius vermicularis spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)

 

29-Tetanus: treatment for infection

SAD RAT:

Sedation

Antitoxin

Debridement

Relaxant

Antibiotic

Tracheostomy

 

30-Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture identification

“Rough, Tough, Buff”:

Rough: colony isn’t smooth but rough like breadcrumbs.

Tough: colony stuck to plate well, and tough to remove.

Buff: buff is a color, a cream/coffee shade.

 

31-Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors SMASHED:

Streptolysins

M protein

Anti-C5a peptidase

Streptokinase

Hyaluronidase

Exotoxin

DNAses

 

32-Psedomonas aeruginosa: features AERUGINOSA:

Aerobic

Exotoxin A

Rod/ Resistance

UTIs, burns, injuries

Green-blue dressings

Iron-containing lesions

Negative gram

Odor of grapes

Slime capsule sometimes (in CF pt)

Adherin pili

 

33-Influenza infection: clinical manifestations

“Having Flu Symptoms Can Make Moaning Children A Nightmare”:

Headache

Fever

Sore throat

Chills

Myalgias

Malaise

Cough

Anorexia

Nasal congestion

 

34-Meningitis: risk factors

“Can Induce Severe Attacks Of Head PAINS”:

Cancer

Immunocompromised state

Sinusitis

Age extremes

Otitis

Head trauma

Parameningeal infection

Alcoholism

Infections (systemic, esp. respiratory)

Neurosurgical procedures

Splenectomy

 

35-Endocarditis: indications for surgeryPUSRIVER:

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)

Uncontrolled infection

Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities

Resection of mycotic aneurysm

Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)

Valvular damage (significant)

Embolization (repeated systemic)

Refractory congestive heart failure

 

36-Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis

“With Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus Attention Somewhere Meaningful”:

Wrong diagnosis

Noninfectious endocarditis

Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)

Intracellular obligate organisms

Slow growing fastidious organisms

Fungal infection

Antibiotic used previously

Subacute right-sided endocarditis

Mural endocarditis

 

37-Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it

“High Tech Lab Results Point At Endocarditis”:

Hematuria

Thrombocytopenia

Leukocytosis, -penia

Red blood cell casta

Proteinuria

Anemia

Elevated ESR

 

38-Vaccines: types STARK:

Subunit

Toxoid

Attenuated [live]

Recombinant

Killed [inactivated]

 

39-Streptococcus pyogenes: diseases caused pages :

Necrotising fasciitis and myositis

Impetigo

Pharyngitis

Pneumonia

Lymphangitis

Erysipelas and cellulitis

Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS

 

40-AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing

“The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse”:

Toxoplasma gondii

M. avium intracellulare

Pneumocystis carinii

Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans

Tuberculosis CMV Cryptosporidium parvum

 

41-Capsulated bacteria

“Some Bacteria Have An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing”:

Strep pneumonia

Bacteroides

 H. influenza

Anthrax (B. anthracis)

E. coli

Pasteurella

Salmonella

Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis)

Yersinia pestis

Pseudomonas

 Francisella

Brucella

Klebsiella

 

42-Food poisoning: bugs inducing

“Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit”:

E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]

Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]

Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]

Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]

Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]

Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]

Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]

Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]

 

43-Trichomaniasis: features•

5 F’s:

Flagella

Frothy discharge

Fishy odor (sometimes)

Fornication (STD)

Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx

 

44-Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location

Elementary: Extracellular

Initial: Intracellular

 

45-HIV infection:

high-risk groupsHIV:

Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs IV drug abusers

 

46-Toxoplasma gondii: clinical features

      Cat reservoir: a cat.  Bug name is Gondii: cat has a Gandi head.

Cat fecal origin: cat is in the litter box.

Causes brain infection, diagnosed by CAT scan: a “CAT” scan of Gandi’s brain.

Toxic to eyes: Gandi has cat eyes.

      Lymph nodes enlarged: large nodes around neck.

      Affects fetus : small kitten in womb.

AIDS patient commonly: cat is very skinny, like an AIDS patient.

 

 

47-IgA protease-producing bacteria

“Nice Strip of Ham”:

Neisseria

Streptococcus pneumonia

Haemophilus influenza

 

 

48-E. coli: major subtypes, key point of each

“HIT by E. coli outbreak”:

EnteroHemorrhagic:

• HUS from Hamburgers EnteroInvasive:

• Immune-mediated Inflammation EnteroToxigenic:

• Traveller’s diarrhea

 

 

49-Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms

ToRCHeS:

Toxoplasma

Rubella

CMV

Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E

Syphilis

• Alternatively: TORCHES: with Others (parvo, listeria), add HIV to H’s,

Enteroviruses.

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