Physiology

Posted: May 6, 2012 in MCQ

PHYSIOLOGY

 

1-Urination: autonomic control

“When you pee, it’s PISs”:

Parasympathetic Inhibits Sympathetic.

 

2-Adrenal cortex layers and products

“Great Attire And Fast Cars Are Really Sexy Attributes”:

Granulosa secretes Aldosterone in response to Angiotensin II. Fasiculata secretes Cortisol in response to ACTH. Reticularis secretes Sex steroids in response to ACTH.

 

3-Adrenal gland: functions ACTH:

Adrenergic functions

Catabolism of proteins/ Carbohydrate metabolism

T cell immunomodulation

Hyper/ Hypotension (blood pressure control)

 

4-Adrenal cortex layers and products

“Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex”:

• Layers: Glomerulosa Fasiculata Reticulata

• Respective products: Mineralcorticoids Glucocorticoids Sex hormones

• Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney).

 

5-Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function

carotid SinuS: measures preSSure.

carotid bO2dy measures O2.

 

6-Einthoven’s Triangle: organization

Corners are at RA (right arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).

Number of L’s at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL is ++].

Sum of number of L’s of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA is lead III].

For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle hemisphere contains only positive signs.

 

7-Pituitary: anterior hypophysis hormones

FLATPiG:

FSH

LH

ACTH

TSH

Prolactin ignore GH

 

8-Hb-oxygen dissociation curve shifts: effect, location

Left shift: causes Loading of O2 in Lungs.

Right shift: causes Release of O2 from Hb.

 

 

9-Diabetes Insipidous: diagnosing subtypes :

After a desmopression injection:

Concentrated urine = Cranial.

No effect = Nephrogenic.

 

10-Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms THYROIDISM:

Tremor

Heart rate up

Yawning [fatigability]

Restlessness

Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea

Intolerance to heat

Diarrhea

Irritability

Sweating

Musle wasting & weight loss

 

11-Oxytocin-producing nucleus of hypothalamus

Paraventricular nucleus–> Parturition (childbirth is oxytocin’s most important role).

 

12-PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function

TxA2 Aggregates platelets.

PGI2 Inhibits aggregation.

• Note: full name of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full name of TxA2 is thromboxane A2.

 

13-Alkalosis vs. acidosis:

directions of pH and HCO3 ROME:

Respiratory= Opposite:

• pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis). • pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis).

Metabolic= Equal:

• pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis). • pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis).

 

14-Temperature control: cerebral regions

“High Power Air Conditioner”:

Heating = Posterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus].

Anterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus] = Cooling.

 

15-VO2 normal value is 250 mL/min

“V02” is the numbers, just need to rearrange the order. V is roman numeral for 5, so rearrange to 2V0, or 250 mL/min.

 

16-Nervous stimulus: the 4 ways to classify

“A MILD stimulus”: Modality Intensity Location Duration

 

17-Compliance of lungs factors COMPLIANCE:

Collagen deposition (fibrosis)

Ossification of costal cartilages

Major obesity

Pulmonary venous congestion

Lung size

Increased expanding pressure

Age

No surfactant

Chest wall scarring

Emphysema

• All but L/A/E decrease compliance.

 

18-Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests

“PeT PiTTbull”:

PeT: PT is for extrinsic pathway.

PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.

 

19-Heart: -tropic definitions

Lusitropic: loose is relaxed. Definition: relax heart.

Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward. Definition: contract heart.

Chronotropic: ‘chrono-‘ means ‘time’. Defintion: heart rate (of SA node impulses).

Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.

 

20-Pituitary hormones FLAGTOP:

Follicle stimulating hormone

Lutinizing hormone

Adrenocorticotropin hormone

Growth hormone

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Oxytocin

Prolactin

Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second ‘A’ for Anti-diruetic homone/vasopressin

• Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are not well understood.

 

21-Heart valves: sequence of flow

TRIPS BIAS:

TRIcuspid Pulmonary Semilunar

BIcuspid Aortic Semilunar

 

22-V/Q gradient in lung

Infinity, a lung and a zero stack nicely.

V/Q is lowest at bottom, highest at top.

 

23-Balance organs

Utricle and Saccule keep US balanced.

 

 

24-Adrenal cortex layers and products

“Get your Facts Right, Men are Glued to their Gonads”:

Glomerulosa

Fasciculata

Reticularis

Mineralocorticoids

Glucocorticoids

Gonadocorticoids [androgens]

 

 

25-Heart electrical conduction pathway

“If patient’s family are all having Heart attacks, you must SAVe HIS KIN!”

SA node —> AV node —> His (bundle of) –> PurKINje fibers

 

 

26-Gut intrinsic innervation:

myenteric plexus vs. submucosal plexus function

Myenteric: Motility.

Submucosal: Secretion and blood flow.

 

 

 

27-Progesterone: actions PROGESTE:

Produce cervical mucous

Relax uterine smooth muscle

Oxycotin sensitivity down

Gonadotropin [FSH, LH] secretions down

Endometrial spiral arteries and secretions up

Sustain pregnancy

Temperature up / Tit development

Excitability of myometrium down

 

 

28-Mechanoreceptor types

“Frustated Muscular Mechanics Rub Her Pussy”:

Free nerve endings

Meisner’s

Merkel’s disc

Ruffini’s

Hair end organ

Pacinian corpuscle

 

 

 

29-Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites

“ABC” of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c):

 

• Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain.

“HbF binds Forcefully”:

 

• HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left. Stored blood is SOS:

 

• Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG. 2,3 BPG binding site is BBC:

 

• BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb.myoglobin binding strength is MOM:

 

• Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.

 

 

30-Muscle spindle: origin of primary vs. secondary endings

“1 from 1, 2 from 2”:

Primary ending is from Group Ia.

Secondary ending from Group II.

.

 

31-Osteoblast vs. osteoclast

OsteoBlast Builds bone.

OsteoClast Consumes bone.

 

 

32-Pepsin-producing cells

“Chief of Pepsi-Cola”:

• Chief cells of stomach produce Pepsin.

 

 

33-Prostaglandins: dilatation abilities

Prospectors keep mineshafts open:

Mineshaft 1: Patent ductus ateriosus.

Mineshaft 2: renal afferent arteriole dilatation.
 

34-Adrenal cortex layers and products

“Get My Freakin’ Gun Right Away”:

Glomerulosa: Mineralcorticoid (aldosterone) Fasiculata: Glucocorticoid (cortisol) Reticularis: Androgens

 

 

 

 

35-MAO isoenzyme form locations

• MAO-A in: Adrenergic peripheral structures Alimentary mucosa [intestine]

• MAO-B in: Brain Blood platelets

 

 

36-Adrenal cortex layers and products

“Get All Fat Chicks Right Away”:

• Layers: Glomerulosa Fasciculata Reticularis • Products: Aldosterone Cortisol Androgens

 

 

37-Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function

“Outer cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the brain”:

Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal. Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.

 

 

38-LH vs FSH: function in male

LH: Leydig cells stimulated to produce testosterone.

FSH: Spermatogenesis stimulated.

 

 

39-Heart valves: closure sequence

“Many Things Are Possible”:

Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic

 

 

40-Rods vs. cone function

RoD: Dim light.

Cones: Color.

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