1-Urination: autonomic control
“When you pee, it’s PISs”:
Parasympathetic Inhibits Sympathetic.
2-Adrenal cortex layers and products
“Great Attire And Fast Cars Are Really Sexy Attributes”:
Granulosa secretes Aldosterone in response to Angiotensin II. Fasiculata secretes Cortisol in response to ACTH. Reticularis secretes Sex steroids in response to ACTH.
3-Adrenal gland: functions ACTH:
Catabolism of proteins/ Carbohydrate metabolism
T cell immunomodulation
Hyper/ Hypotension (blood pressure control)
4-Adrenal cortex layers and products
“Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex”:
• Layers: Glomerulosa Fasiculata Reticulata
• Respective products: Mineralcorticoids Glucocorticoids Sex hormones
• Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney).
5-Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function
carotid SinuS: measures preSSure.
carotid bO2dy measures O2.
6-Einthoven’s Triangle: organization
Corners are at RA (right arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L’s at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL is ++].
Sum of number of L’s of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle hemisphere contains only positive signs.
7-Pituitary: anterior hypophysis hormones
Prolactin ignore GH
8-Hb-oxygen dissociation curve shifts: effect, location
Left shift: causes Loading of O2 in Lungs.
Right shift: causes Release of O2 from Hb.
9-Diabetes Insipidous: diagnosing subtypes :
After a desmopression injection:
Concentrated urine = Cranial.
No effect = Nephrogenic.
10-Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms THYROIDISM:
Heart rate up
Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea
Intolerance to heat
Musle wasting & weight loss
11-Oxytocin-producing nucleus of hypothalamus
Paraventricular nucleus–> Parturition (childbirth is oxytocin’s most important role).
12-PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function
TxA2 Aggregates platelets.
PGI2 Inhibits aggregation.
• Note: full name of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full name of TxA2 is thromboxane A2.
13-Alkalosis vs. acidosis:
directions of pH and HCO3 ROME:
• pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis). • pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis).
• pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis). • pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis).
14-Temperature control: cerebral regions
“High Power Air Conditioner”:
Heating = Posterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus].
Anterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus] = Cooling.
15-VO2 normal value is 250 mL/min
“V02” is the numbers, just need to rearrange the order. V is roman numeral for 5, so rearrange to 2V0, or 250 mL/min.
16-Nervous stimulus: the 4 ways to classify
“A MILD stimulus”: Modality Intensity Location Duration
17-Compliance of lungs factors COMPLIANCE:
Collagen deposition (fibrosis)
Ossification of costal cartilages
Pulmonary venous congestion
Increased expanding pressure
Chest wall scarring
• All but L/A/E decrease compliance.
18-Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests
PeT: PT is for extrinsic pathway.
PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.
19-Heart: -tropic definitions
Lusitropic: loose is relaxed. Definition: relax heart.
Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward. Definition: contract heart.
Chronotropic: ‘chrono-‘ means ‘time’. Defintion: heart rate (of SA node impulses).
Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.
20-Pituitary hormones FLAGTOP:
Follicle stimulating hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second ‘A’ for Anti-diruetic homone/vasopressin
• Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are not well understood.
21-Heart valves: sequence of flow
TRIcuspid Pulmonary Semilunar
BIcuspid Aortic Semilunar
22-V/Q gradient in lung
Infinity, a lung and a zero stack nicely.
V/Q is lowest at bottom, highest at top.
Utricle and Saccule keep US balanced.
24-Adrenal cortex layers and products
“Get your Facts Right, Men are Glued to their Gonads”:
25-Heart electrical conduction pathway
“If patient’s family are all having Heart attacks, you must SAVe HIS KIN!”
SA node —> AV node —> His (bundle of) –> PurKINje fibers
26-Gut intrinsic innervation:
myenteric plexus vs. submucosal plexus function
Submucosal: Secretion and blood flow.
27-Progesterone: actions PROGESTE:
Produce cervical mucous
Relax uterine smooth muscle
Oxycotin sensitivity down
Gonadotropin [FSH, LH] secretions down
Endometrial spiral arteries and secretions up
Temperature up / Tit development
Excitability of myometrium down
“Frustated Muscular Mechanics Rub Her Pussy”:
Free nerve endings
Hair end organ
29-Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites
“ABC” of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c):
• Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain.
“HbF binds Forcefully”:
• HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left. Stored blood is SOS:
• Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG. 2,3 BPG binding site is BBC:
• BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb.myoglobin binding strength is MOM:
• Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.
30-Muscle spindle: origin of primary vs. secondary endings
“1 from 1, 2 from 2”:
Primary ending is from Group Ia.
Secondary ending from Group II.
31-Osteoblast vs. osteoclast
OsteoBlast Builds bone.
OsteoClast Consumes bone.
“Chief of Pepsi-Cola”:
• Chief cells of stomach produce Pepsin.
33-Prostaglandins: dilatation abilities
Prospectors keep mineshafts open:
Mineshaft 1: Patent ductus ateriosus.
Mineshaft 2: renal afferent arteriole dilatation.
34-Adrenal cortex layers and products
“Get My Freakin’ Gun Right Away”:
Glomerulosa: Mineralcorticoid (aldosterone) Fasiculata: Glucocorticoid (cortisol) Reticularis: Androgens
35-MAO isoenzyme form locations
• MAO-A in: Adrenergic peripheral structures Alimentary mucosa [intestine]
• MAO-B in: Brain Blood platelets
36-Adrenal cortex layers and products
“Get All Fat Chicks Right Away”:
• Layers: Glomerulosa Fasciculata Reticularis • Products: Aldosterone Cortisol Androgens
37-Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function
“Outer cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the brain”:
Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal. Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.
38-LH vs FSH: function in male
LH: Leydig cells stimulated to produce testosterone.
FSH: Spermatogenesis stimulated.
39-Heart valves: closure sequence
“Many Things Are Possible”:
Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic
40-Rods vs. cone function
RoD: Dim light.