Primary bone tumors
- – Benign bone tumors (osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor of bone, aneurysmal bone cyst, and fibrous dysplasia of bone)
- – Malignant bone tumors (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and other types)
- – While malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH)
- – Germ cell tumors, including teratoma
Secondary bone tumors
All secondary bone tumors are metastatic lesions which have spread from other organs, most commonly carcinomas of the breast, lung, and prostate.
An osteoma (plural: “osteomata”) is a new piece of bone usually growing on another piece of bone, typically the skull. Osteoma represents the most common benign neoplasm of the nose and paranasal sinuses.
Osteoid osteoma :
An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor which arises from osteoblasts and originally thought to be a smaller version of an osteoblastoma. Osteoid osteomas tend to be less than 1.5 cm in size. The tumor can be in any bone in the body but are most common in long bones, such as the femur and tibia
It has clinical and histologic manifestations similar to those of osteoid osteoma.A lthough similar to osteoid osteoma, it is larger (between 2 and 6 cm).
Osteochondroma is a type of benign tumor that consists of cartilage and bone. They generally occur at the end of the growth plates of long bones, often at joints. They most commonly form at the shoulder or the knee but have been known to occur in the long bones of the forearm (i.e. the radius and ulna).
Giant-cell tumor of bone :
Giant-cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB) is a relatively uncommon tumor of the bone. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells (osteoclast-like cells).
Aneurysmal bone cyst :
Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign osteolytic bone neoplasm characterized by blood filled spaces separated by fibrous septa.
Fibrous dysplasia of bone :
Fibrous dysplasia is a disease that causes bone thinning and growths or lesions in one or more bones, and leads to bone weakness and scar formation within the bones.
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignant neoplasm arising from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin (and thus a sarcoma) that exhibit osteoblastic differentiation and produce malignant osteoid. It is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer.
Chondrosarcoma is a cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage.
Ewing sarcoma :
Ewing sarcoma is a malignant round-cell tumour. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the ribs and clavicle.
Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by the presence of immature fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. It is usually found in males aged 30 to 40. It originates in fibrous tissues of the bone and invades long or flat bones such as femur, tibia, and mandible. It also involves periosteum and overlying muscle.