Upper Extremity Injuries:
- 1.Shoulder dislocation.
- 2.Humeral Fractures.
- 3.Supra Condylar Fracture.
- 4.Forearm Fracture.
Management of Fractures:
- Restore Function
1. Shoulder dislocation : A dislocated shoulder occurs when the humerous separates from the scapula at the Glenohumoral Joint.
- – Anterior (Common 95%) Complications of – Axilary Nerves (c5,c6), Axilary Arteries and Deltoid Muscle Damages
- – Posterior (Rare <5%) Etiology – Electric Shock ,Seizures
- – Inferior (Extremely Rare)
2. Humeral Fractures :
- Proximal Humerus Fractures
Proximal humerus fractures occur near the shoulder joint. The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint, with the ball being the top of the humerus bone. Fractures of this ball are considered proximal humerus fractures. These fractures may involve the insertion of the important rotator cuff tendons. Because these tendons are important to shoulder motion, treatment may depend on the position of these tendon insertions.
- Mid-Shaft Humerus Fractures
Mid-shaft humerus fractures occur away from the shoulder and elbow joints. Most humeral shaft fractures will heal without surgery, but there are some situations that require surgical intervention. These injuries are commonly associated with injury to one of the large nerves in the arm, called the radial nerve. Injury to this nerve may cause symptoms in the wrist and hand.
- Distal Humerus Fractures
Distal humerus fractures are uncommon injuries in adults. These fractures occur near the elbow joint. These fractures most often require surgical treatment unless the bones are held in proper position. This type of fracture is much more common in children, but the treatment is very different in this age group.
- Extension Type (80%)
- Flexion Type (Rare)
4. Forearm Fractures :
- Torus fracture. This is also called a “buckle” fracture. The topmost layer of bone on one side of the bone is compressed, causing the other side to bend away from the growth plate. This is a stable fracture and the broken pieces of bone have not separated apart (displaced).
- Metaphyseal fracture. The fracture is across the upper, or lower, portion of the shaft of the bone and does not affect the growth plate.
- Greenstick fracture. The fracture extends through a portion of the bone, causing it to bend on the other side.
- Galeazzi fracture. The injury affects both bones of the forearm. There is usually a displaced fracture in the radius and a dislocation of the ulna at the wrist, where the radius and ulna come together.
- Monteggia fracture. The injury affects both bones of the forearm. There is usually a fracture in the ulna and the top (head) of the radius is dislocated. This is a very severe injury and requires urgent care.
- Growth plate fracture. Also called a physeal fracture, this fracture occurs at or across the growth plate. Usually these fractures affect the growth plate of the radius near the wrist.
4. Distal Radius Fracture : A distal radius fracture is a common bone fracture of the radius in the forearm. Because of its proximity to the wrist joint, this injury is often called a wrist fracture.
- Colles’ Fracture
- Smith’s fracture or Reverse Colles’ Fracture
- Barton’s fracture
- Chauffeur’s fracture